TAIWAN HRJ
 

台灣公民教育的轉變歷程 (II): 戰後的變動與挑戰(1945–1949)

作者:湯梅英(台北市立大學教育系教授)

摘要:

本文是〈台灣公民教育的轉變歷程〉系列的第二篇。此系列主要探究台灣經歷 不同的歷史階段,在國家認同、政治權力、本土和中國以及全球化等不同勢力競逐下,學校教育如何形塑、建構「公民」意識,藉此爬梳台灣面對殖民主義、 國族主義、民主化與全球化的挑戰,教育體制推動公民教育的內涵與轉變歷 程。這篇文章延續〈台灣公民教育的轉變歷程:民主化與全球化的挑戰(I)〉 的討論架構,以教育措施、課程與教學活動及教育成效三方面,分析二戰後至 國府遷台(1945–1949)的歷史階段,藉此理解公民教育的發展歷程。
台灣在戰後四年藉由教育政策與制度的中國化,建構「中國化」的教育系統, 透過精神國防式的師範學校,培養效忠國家的教師,以實際推動中國化教育, 傳遞國家意識和民族精神。為消除日本殖民的皇民意識,確保臺灣人對中國的 認同,學校課程與教學活動特別重視國語文、歷史及三民主義等科目,增加教 學時數,辦理各項「國語」推廣活動,以培養具有中華文化思想與國族精神的 中華民國國民。換言之,戰後轉換期台灣的「公民」教育,以「中國化」為推 動與改革教育制度的準則,強調去除日本殖民色彩,加強對中國的國家認同, 傳遞國族意識,培養效忠國家民族的「公民」。

 

關鍵字
公民教育、國家認同、中國化教育


The Transformation of Citizenship Education in Taiwan (II):Changes and Challenges after World War II (1945-1949)

Author:Mei-Ying Tang(Professor, Department of Education, University of Taipei)

Abstract:

This article is the second part of the series project on exploring the transformation of citizenship education in Taiwan. The main concern of this project is how national identity can be shaped and reshaped in a changing society amid the tensions of nationalism, localization and globalization. Focusing on the education system, school curriculum, teaching and learning activities, this article follows the same framework as that of the first article which discussed the mechanism of education for colonized citizens during the Japanese occupation. After World War II, there were too many policy changes, reforms and reversals, occurring within the first four years (1945-1949). Nothing was more important than diminishing the influence of Japanese colonization on Taiwan. The utmost goal of education was to cultivate future citizens with traditional cultural values as Chinese citizens through a sinicized education system and school curriculum. There were mandatory subjects such as Chinese, History, Geography, the Three Principles of Sun Yat-sun, and Civics with the indoctrination by patriotism and ethno-Chinese nationalism. In short, schools were pivotal in maintaining the party-state in Taiwan after World War II. Civic education served the ideological needs of the regime, preserved the power of the establishment, and supported Chinese cultural traditions and patriotism.


Keywords

civic education, national identity, sinicization of education

全文下載

 
憲法與國際人權法的匯流:專訪張文貞教授
 
台灣的國家人權委員會應該設置在哪裡?-專訪魏千峯
 
台灣的國家人權委員會應該設置在哪裡?-專訪李念祖
 
她(他)們還是我們?:專訪陳文葳
 
台灣與國際人權標準:專訪陳玉潔
 
海外人權運動四十年:專訪王渝
 
學術研究與公共服務:專訪廖福特
 
理論與實踐的辯證:專訪顧玉玲