TAIWAN HRJ
 

歐洲與中國關係中的人權議題:評估歐洲規範性力量的有效性

作者:Zsuzsa Anna Ferenczy(布魯塞爾自由大學博士候選人、歐洲議會政治顧問)

摘要:

歷年來,歐盟從未能掌握實質的力量,也未試圖透過經濟實力博取籌碼。不過,歐盟也因其發揮的規範性力量(或者意識型態上的力量)而扮演模範的角色;她不僅因此廣受讚掦,本身也頗為自豪。歐洲基本上透過外交政策向外發揮這種規範性的力量,不過,她對內也必需承擔起這種示範性的角色,才足以發揮規範性力量。然而,本文要指出的是,針對中國的人權問題,歐盟的規範性力量效果有限。首先,本文認為,歐洲與中國在概念的認知上,仍存在相當的落差,這是歐盟的規範性力量受限的重要原因。兩方在各自的發展歷程中,懷抱了不同的價值:歐洲堅持民主、法治與人權,但中國重視主權與不干涉原則。其次,本文認為,歐洲的外交政策缺乏一致性,阻礙了對人權的追求,基本訴求亦難以貫穿其政策。結果,歐洲無法在論述與實踐的結合上建立有效的協調機制,導致政策分裂,北京反而因此從中獲利。第三,本文認為,歐洲內外一連串的危機,為其示範性力量帶來更大的傷害,也扼殺其促進人權的能力。不過,隨著歐洲在國際上扮演日漸吃重的角色,以及各類歐洲機制持續努力所獲致的成果,本文認為歐洲雖然面臨上述的局限,但已逐漸形成面對中國的人權論述。

關鍵字
歐洲外交政策、政策分裂、歐盟對外行動部、規範性力量、規範性的分歧、中國、人權


Human Rights in Europe-China Relations: Assessing European Normative Power Effectiveness

Author:Zsuzsa Anna Ferenczy (Phd Candidate, Free University, Brussels. Political Advisor, the European Parliament)

Abstract:

Historically the Union has never excelled in hard power, nor struggled to gain leverage from its economic weight, but it has been widely acclaimed and self-acclaimed a normative power, an ideological power, a leader by example. Europe’s normative identity originates in pursuing its normative power externally through its foreign policy. More importantly however, only by internally acting as a role model can Europe be considered a normative power. This paper argues that European normative power effectiveness in human rights in China remains limited. First, it claims that a conceptual divergence between Europe and China remains an important factor hampering effectiveness. The two sides embrace different values in their development; Europe insists on democracy, rule of law and human rights, and China on sovereignty and non-interference. Second, the paper maintains that Europe’s fragmented foreign policy continues to present challenges in the pursuit of human rights, whereby its principled narrative is not followed through. As a result, difficulties persist in establishing effective European institutional coordination to put the narrative into practice, leading to fragmented policies that Beijing has exploited to its own benefit. Third, the paper claims that the series of crises within and beyond Europe’s borders have put further pressure on Europe’s power of example, and therefore its ability to pursue human rights. In spite of these limitations however, the paper reveals that a principled European human rights narrative has gradually taken shape regarding China, with Europe’s increasing role as an international actor, the result of the common efforts and contributions of European institutions.

Keywords
European foreign policy, policy fragmentation, European External Action Service (EEAS), normative power, normative divergence, China, human rights

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