TAIWAN HRJ
 

兒少「表意權」實質意涵的初探-以被安置兒少發聲的權利為中心

作者:林沛君(國立政治大學法律學系博士班研究生)

摘要:

國內近年來被安置兒少於安置機構內發生重大傷害,甚至死亡的不幸事件屢見不鮮。對於進入安置體系的這群兒少而言,本文認為其權益保障的關鍵之一在於「表意權」之落實,特別是國家是否確實協助該等兒少於被安置的各階段中表達意見並向外發聲。本文由《兒童權利公約》之表意權實質內涵為探討之基礎,並藉由英國相關法制具體思考國家應有之具體作為。對照國內規範,本文提出三項原則性建議:(一)《家事事件法》及相關子法應儘速修正並要求法院強制為被安置兒少指派程序監理人,不待兒少本人或利害關係人之聲請;(二)確實體現「有權利即有救濟」之原則,對於被安置兒少提出申訴的權利通盤考量並儘速完善相關機制;(三)重新檢視安置單位評鑑之成效、強化評鑑單位之「獨立性」及採行「突擊性」評鑑方式,未來並進一步思考建置常設性評鑑機關之可行性。

關鍵字
《兒童權利公約》、表意權、兒少被傾聽的權利、兒童表達意見及意見獲得考量的權利、被安置兒少、《兒童權利公約施行法》、兒童權利委員會第12號一般性意見


Toward a Better Understanding of the Right of the Child to Be Heard: A Rights-based Approach for Children in Child Protective Proceedings

Author:Peggy Pei-Chun Lin (Ph.D. candidate, College of Law, National Chengchi University)

Abstract:

The tragedy of child abuse in child care institutions is at the forefront of public attention. For children who are subject to child protective proceedings and subsequent institutional care, “the right of the child to be heard”, as stipulated in Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, is key to transforming these children into rights holders, rather than being seen and treated as objects of the welfare system.


Following an overview of the aforementioned Article 12 and the English child-care legislative framework, and reflecting on the present state of child institutional child care and relevant proceedings, this article proposes the following: (1) Mandatory appointment of a guardian ad litem by courts for children subject to care orders; (2) “for rights to have meaning, effective remedies must be available to redress violations”, the government should, therefore, take the right of the child to make complaints seriously and establish relevant rules and procedures as soon as possible; and (3) strengthen the independence of child care institution inspectors and make “without warning” inspections compulsory and, in the long term, evaluate the feasibility of establishing a permanent and independent monitoring body.

Keywords
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the right of the child to be heard, the right of the child to be heard and have his/her views taken into account, child in public care, Implementation Act of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, General Comment 12 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child

全文下載

 
憲法與國際人權法的匯流:專訪張文貞教授
 
台灣的國家人權委員會應該設置在哪裡?-專訪魏千峯
 
台灣的國家人權委員會應該設置在哪裡?-專訪李念祖
 
她(他)們還是我們?:專訪陳文葳
 
台灣與國際人權標準:專訪陳玉潔
 
海外人權運動四十年:專訪王渝
 
學術研究與公共服務:專訪廖福特
 
理論與實踐的辯證:專訪顧玉玲