TAIWAN HRJ
 

將酷刑犯行以獨立罪章論處之國家義務——以禁止酷刑公約第1 條與第4 條為核心

作者:姚孟昌(輔仁大學學士後法律學系助理教授)

摘要:

現行刑法顯未在條文中採納《禁止酷刑公約》之酷刑定義,也未將酷刑罪增訂於刑法中作為獨立罪章。來台審查國家人權報告之國際人權專家為此表示遺憾。若未來中華民國批准《禁止酷刑公約》,根據公約第1 條與第4 條將酷刑犯行以刑法追訴是必然要履行之國家義務。政府具體作為更是確立法治與良政、根絕一切酷刑與殘忍、不人道對待及處遇之國家意志展現。
 
本文第一部份將以《禁止酷刑公約》第1 條與第4 條為核心,闡述其規範內涵與衍生之國家義務。根據「禁止酷刑委員會」審查各國國家報告與個人申訴後之法理,說明酷刑定義與如何追究涉及酷刑犯行者之刑事責任。第二部份則根據第一部份的研究內容,檢討政府對國際專家建議之回應,並對政府如何根據公約規定實踐專家建議提出建議。
 
關鍵字:酷刑定義、酷刑罪、禁止酷刑公約


A Study of Articles 1 and 4 of the Convention against Torture: The Obligation to Insert the Crime of Torture as a Separate Crime with Adequate Penalties

Author:Meng-Chang Yao(Assistant Professor, Department of Postgraduate Legal Studies, Fujen Catholic University)

Abstract:

 
In 2013, the International Group of Independent Experts strongly recommended that the government of Taiwan should insert the crime of torture, as defined in Article 1 of the UN Convention against Torture, as a separate crime with adequate penalties in its criminal code. So far, the Taiwanese criminal code has not adopted the definition of torture provided in Article 1, nor has it ensured that all acts of torture are offences listed in a separate chapter of the criminal code yet. This means that the government has not properly satisfied its obligations stated in Article 7 of the ICCPR. If the ROC government hopes to ratify the Convention against Torture in the near future, it should take the above suggestions seriously, since these are necessary measures for fulfilling the obligations provided in Articles 1 and 4. Also, by making every offence punishable by appropriate penalties the government’s desire to abolish all forms of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment is made manifest.
 
This study firstly explores the norms and content of Articles 1 and 4 of the Convention against Torture, and then discusses the obligations and measures which are required under these two provisions. The study reviews the relevant conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture and the jurisprudence expounding torture. Secondly, it examines the current criminal code and suggests what steps are necessary to fulfil Article 4.
 
Keywords:torture, the crime of torture, the Convention against Torture

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