TAIWAN HRJ
 

1989運動中的民刊

作者:邵江(獨立學者)

摘要:

本文檢視1989 年民主運動中民刊的形式、內容和作用。伴隨著運動過程的遊行、靜坐、絕食、佔領天安門廣場、反抗戒嚴,民刊創造和擴大了公共空間,從校園的大字報牆或同仁雜誌,擴展為在城市多處空間的活字報;民刊隨抗議者的遊行散發到街頭和廣場,隨串聯傳播到不同的地區甚至境外。民刊探索和辨析民主理念,使之成為貫穿運動的論述。民刊主要的功能是運動策略動員和建立社會各界抵抗聯絡網絡,並催生了高校學生自治組織、隨後以天安門廣場為基地的其他自治組織,以及不同社會階層、代際和民族的抵抗行動。民刊未能使用對話方式有效和持續的與社會階層群體交流,將初始運動訴求轉化為民主運動的全民綱領,也未能使政治民主和經濟民主相關性論述成為運動中有影響力的論述;民刊也未能辨析五四以來民主與愛國、強國的關係。運動後期一些傳單過分強調以佔領天安門為中心的抵抗,而不是建立社會各界基層自治組織並以此基礎為多中心,進行形式廣泛的系列抗爭。民刊為爭取全球民主和全面民主化、結束專制和帝國包括中共極權和中華帝國、以及尋找當下全球民主危機的出路,提供了豐富的經驗和教訓。
 
關鍵字:民刊、八九民運、六四屠殺、綱領和論述、政治和經濟民主、多中心與全方位抵抗


Civilian Publications during the 1989 Prodemocracy Movement

Author:Jiang Shao(Independent Scholar)

Abstract:

 

This article examines the format, content and role of the civilian publications during the 1989 pro-Democracy Movement in China. As the marches, sit-ins, hunger strikes, and occupation of Tiananmen Square in defiance of martial law, so too the copying and dissemination of civilian publications expanded from university campuses to the streets and the square itself. These publications ranged from big character posters and in-house pamphlets, largely confined to universities, to movable posters in public places in Beijing and other regions within China, and even outside. The study of what democracy meant in the civilian publications was the most significant matter of discussion during the Movement. The publications played an important role in unifying tactics during the Movement and establishing networks of resistance among various actors. They also inspired self-governing student organizations and other autonomous organizations based at Tiananmen Square as well as multiple acts of resistance across generations, social class and ethnicity. The publications did not believe that dialogue with grassroots society was an effective or sustainable approach in turning the movement’s earliest claims into a pro-democracy movement for all. Discussion on the relationship between political democracy and economic democracy did not become an influential issue in the Movement. Civilian publications failed to discern the relationship between democracy, patriotism and self-strengthening of the nation. In the latter stages of the Movement some leaflets over-emphasized the occupation of Tiananmen Square as the only center of resistance and failed to promote autonomous organizations among workers and other grassroots’ actors as multiple centers of resistance. The publications provide valuable lessons for future global democracy movements that seek to end autocracy and empires, including the totalitarianism of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese Empire, and a way out of a crisis for democracy.

Keywords:citizen publications, the 1989 prodemocracy movement, June Fourth Massacre, agendas and discourses, political and economic democracy, multiple centres and methods of resistance

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