TAIWAN HRJ
 

《港版國安法》:香港法治的破洞、人權的缺口

作者:陳玉潔(中央研究院法律學研究所助研究員、紐約大學亞美法研究所合作學者)

摘要:

《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》(《港版國安法》)為香港法治人權帶來前所未有的衝擊和挑戰。本文透過《港版國安法》的四個主要面向―機制、程序、罪名和效力範圍―呈現這部法律的樣貌,聚焦在《國安法》如何侵蝕人身、言論、新聞、出版、集會、遊行、示威、結社自由等基本人權保障以及香港法治中的法律明確性、司法獨立、公共問責等原則。展望未來,本文主張香港受到《國安法》影響的社群―包括民間團體、媒體、政界、學界、商界等―應主動進行「影響評估」,公開探討該法對民間倡議、新聞報導、政治運動、學術研究、金融經貿帶來的挑戰,由社群共同、自發地研議因應措施,而非先行自我審查,或被動地等待問題發生。除了運用香港本身豐富的人權法治資源外,香港和國際社會也應善用《國安法》本身對於人權保障的相關規定,持續深化香港人權法治文化底蘊,減少《國安法》的傷害。透過這種社群自發的取徑,可以精確地發現問題、針對該社群需要擬定對策,亦可使自由理念向下扎根,強化香港社會的韌性。
 
關鍵字:《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》、人權、法治、社群自發。
 


The National Security Law for Hong Kong: Infringements of Hong Kong’s Rule of Law and Human Rights

Author:Yu-Jie Chen(Assistant Research Professor, Institutum Iurisprudentiae, Academia Sinica Affiliated Scholar, U.S.-Asia Law Institute, NYU School of Law)

Abstract:

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (National Security Law or NSL) has had an unprecedented impact and brought challenges to the rule of law and human rights in Hong Kong. This article discusses four major aspects of the National Security Law—its mechanisms, procedures, targeted offenses and reach—and focuses on how the NSL erodes fundamental freedoms including personal liberty and freedoms of speech, press, publication, assembly, procession, demonstration and association as well as the principles of legal certainty, judicial independence, and public accountability in Hong Kong’s rule of law. Looking to the future, this article suggests that the communities affected by the NSL, including civil society groups, the media, political circles, academia and businesses, should take the initiative to conduct impact assessments, openly discussing the Law’s impact on civil society advocacy, news reporting, political movements, academic research and business operations. The impacted communities should come together to proactively formulate measures in response to the Law, rather than selfcensor prematurely or wait passively for problems to occur. In addition to using Hong Kong’s rich resources in human rights and rule of law, Hong Kong and international civil society should take advantage of the relevant provisions in the NSL on the protection of human rights, thereby continuing to deepen the cultural heritage of Hong Kong’s human rights and rule of law and minimizing the harm caused by the NSL. Through this proactive, community-driven approach, problems caused by the NSL in various communities can be identified accurately and responses can be tailored to solve them. In addition, the spirit of freedom can further take root to strengthen the resilience of Hong Kong society.
 
Keywords: National Security Law for Hong Kong, rule of law, human rights protection, proactive community-driven approach

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