TAIWAN HRJ
 

環境社會學視野下的環境正義與人權:以美國路易斯安那州居民對峙日本電化企業為例

作者:王詩琪(日本明治大學文學研究科臨床社會學專修博士後期課程)

摘要:

近年來,越來越多社區組織發起的環境運動,特徵為「強調生存」,而不是「環境保護」。為什麼這些環境運動在聲明中強調生存安全?為什麼要強調「環境正義」?在未來,公眾應該怎麼應對環境風險?本文討論社區環境正義運動中呈現的環境正義、人權和知情權的關係,並分析聯合國關於人權的兩個公約,美國和日本的環境知情權的相關規定,以及聯合國人權特別程序在 2018 年推出的「人權與環境原則框架」對環境正義的意義。然後,通過美國路易斯安那州居民對峙日本電化企業的事例,說明與人權和知情權連結的「程序正義」是社區居民爭取環境正義的必要條件。本文認為,第一,和三十年前保護環境的社會運動不同,現代環境運動強調廢棄物的公平處理與信息公開,對「環境正義」的需要明顯;第二,社區周圍的工廠或者企業對運營造成的環境影響需要讓居民能夠認識所面臨的環境風險,以使其有能力保護自身生命和安全;第三,環境正義其實是居民在抵抗環境污染和風險帶來的生命安全威脅時,對維護人權和知情權發出的要求。環境正義的權利就是人權和知情權之必要;環境正義不僅僅需要學術上更多的關注,也需要對社區的關注,和對環境知情權的完善。在未來,面對各種各樣的環境風險,預防原則是最有效的措施,讓公民有能力參與環境決定,就需要在人權和知情權方面對他們的環境正義給予保護。

 

關鍵字:環境正義,人權,知情權,社區,環境風險


Environmental Justice and Human Rights from the Perspective of Environmental Sociology: A Case Study of Louisiana State Residents in the US confronting the Japanese Denka Corporation

Author:Shi-Qi Wang (Doctoral student of sociological course Meiji University, Tokyo)

Abstract:

Recently, more and more environmental movements organized by communities have underscored surviving instead of protecting the environment. Why have these environmental movements declared that they are struggling to survive? In these movements, why do residents emphasize “environmental justice”? In the future, how can communities deal with environmental risks? This paper discusses the relationships between environmental justice, human rights, and the “right to know” reflected in environmental justice movements. From the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (known as the two Covenants), to the US’s Right-ToKnow Act, Japan’s PRTR regulation, and recent Human Rights Special Procedures, environmental justice is made explicit. This paper argues that the procedural justice of environmental justice is closely connected with human rights and the right to know, which empowers residents to strive for clean and healthy living conditions. This paper states three ideas based on a case study in which residents in the state of Louisiana are confronting the Japanese Denka Corporation. First, unlike the environmental protection movement of three decades ago, contemporary environmental movements require equality of environmental waste management and transparent information to protect a community. Secondly, residents should have the right to know about the companies and factories which influence their neighborhood, so that they may be able to recognize environmental risks and how to prepare and protect their community. Thirdly, when residents resist threatening environmental pollutants and risks in their community, environmental justice requires human rights and the right to know. Environmental justice not only needs more attention from academics but also needs an improvement in environmental laws. In the future, the precautionary principle is most effective in the face of environmental risks. Furthermore, environmental justice that helps citizens recognize environmental risks and attend to environmental decision-making needs the protection of human rights and the right to know.

Keywords: environmental justice, human rights, right to know, community, environmental risk

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