TAIWAN HRJ
 

探照白色恐怖裡的人性: 「回到判決的那一天——陳武鎮藝術創作展」策展理念

作者:陳佳利(國立臺北藝術大學博物館研究所教授)、吳介祥(國立彰化師範大學美術系教授)

摘要:

自臺灣的促轉會於 2018 年成立以來,關於中正紀念堂的定位與轉型的討論日趨白熱化。有人主張中正紀念堂應該轉型成為人權博物館,但對戒嚴時期這段歷史感恩至深的蔣介石追隨者,強調紀念堂應該維持現狀。在這樣的脈絡下,筆者接到中正紀念堂管理處展覽企劃組的邀約,希望在中正紀念堂策劃一檔陳武鎮的藝術展覽,以反思白色恐怖歷史並促進社會對話。要如何在象徵威權、崇拜獨裁者的空間下,舉辦一個連結人權教育及轉型正義的藝術展覽?又如何在展覽中,促進社會不同意見之對話與溝通?

本文呈現陳武鎮藝術展的策展理念、手法及觀眾反應。1970 年,陳武鎮因為批評國民黨政府而入獄兩年。作為專業藝術創作者,他的作品持續地回返個人傷痛的過去,並記錄了臺灣白色恐怖的創傷歷史。在他的系列創作中,判決書呈現蔣介石親批改判重刑和死刑的簽文,造成許多政治受難者因而被判死刑,為展覽的核心內容。為了吸引對人權議題或藝術感興趣的觀眾,策展團隊也分別規劃了歷史與藝術兩條展覽路徑,並搭配各種反思性提問,引導觀眾觀察作品、同理受難者並反思加害者、受難者及旁觀者的角色與處境。此外,展覽也設計重寫判決書活動及觀眾留言牆,讓觀眾應用轉型正義的概念,重寫判決書,思考社會該如何還給受難者公道與正義;留言牆除了讓觀眾留下自己的心得與詮釋外,也同時看見他人的意見,既是多元社會具體而微的呈現,也成為我們足以自豪的民主深化之不言而喻的見證。

 

關鍵字

白色恐怖、轉型正義、人權教育、觀眾留言、記憶文化、蔣介石

 

 

 


Life under the White Terror: The Curators’ View of the Exhibition: “Return to Judgment Day: Chen Wu-Jhen’s Artworks”

Author:Chia-Li Chen (Professor, Graduate Institute of Museum Studies, Taipei National University of the Arts, Taiwan) and Chieh-Hsiang Wu (Professor, Department of Arts, National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan)

Abstract:

Since the establishment in 2018 of the Committee for Transitional Justice in Taiwan, the role of the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall has been fiercely debated. Some have proposed the memorial hall should be transformed into a human rights museum. Others claim that it should retain its present status since it is undeniable that Chiang Kai-shek has had a great influence on, and made a contribution to, Taiwan. In these circumstances, we were commissioned to curate an art exhibition to reflect on Taiwan’s White Terror period and facilitate dialogue within society. How can an art exhibition represent the difficult history in connection with transitional justice and human rights issues in a memorial hall that worships Chiang Kai-shek, a dictator who started the White Terror in Taiwan? How can an exhibition provide a forum where different ideas can be communicated and discussed? 

This paper presents the curatorial practice of a retrospective exhibition on Chen Wu-Jhen, who was sentenced to two years in prison during the 1970s for his criticism of the nationalist government. Chen’s artworks portray his personal experience as well as the traumatic and difficult history of Taiwan. A series of Chen’s artworks became the main theme representing how Chiang Kai-shek violated human rights by changing verdicts made by judges, and thus sentencing many political prisoners to death. To attract visitors who are either interested in art or human rights issues, the curatorial team designed two routes: an art route and a history route, each with inspiring questions to lead visitors to observe the artworks, sympathize with the victims mentioned in the paintings and reflect upon the different roles of perpetrators, victims and bystanders. Visitors were also invited to rewrite verdicts according to the principles of transitional justice and express their own ideas on the visitors’ comment wall, hoping to guide and inspire the audience to consider what should be done to restore justice. By the simple act of leaving their thoughts and reading others’ remarks on the comment wall, they constructed and presented a diversified society. Such a presentation is the best proof of Taiwan as a democratized country, which we are proud to be part of.

Keywords

transitional justice, human rights education, White Terror in Taiwan, visitors’ comments, culture of memorization, Chiang Kai-shek

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